J Korean Ophthalmol Soc > Volume 59(2); 2018 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society 2018;59(2):169-175.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3341/jkos.2018.59.2.169    Published online February 15, 2018.
Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Smartphone Overusers with Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia.
Jiho Song, Sa Kang Kim, Mi Young Choi
Department of Ophthalmology Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea. mychoi@chungbuk.ac.kr
스마트폰을 과다 사용한 급성후천일치내사시 환자의 임상양상 및 치료결과
충북대학교 의과대학 안과학교실
Correspondence:  Mi Young Choi,
Email: mychoi@chungbuk.ac.kr
Received: 3 August 2017   • Revised: 22 October 2017   • Accepted: 23 January 2018
To evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of smartphone overusers with acute acquired comitant esotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients ≥ 15 years of age who used a smartphone for > 4 hours a day for > 1 year, and who were diagnosed with acute acquired comitant esotropia from May 2011 to January 2016. We analyzed sex, age at the time of manifestation and duration of esotropia, refractive error, deviated angle at the first and final visits, and the results of refraining from smartphone use, use of the Fresnel prism, and surgery for esotropia. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were studied, including 8 males and 5 females. The mean age at development of esotropia was 22.7 ± 9.7 years. The mean duration of esotropia before the first visit was 28.0 ± 33.0 months, and the mean follow-up period was 16.4 ± 16.4 months. The mean angle of esotropia was 21.8 ± 7.0 prism diopters (PD) at distance and 22.2 ± 7.9 PD at near. There were eight myopic patients; the other patients were emmetropia. The esotropia of all patients did not improve after refraining from smartphone use. There was no improvement in five patients who were wearing the Fresnel prism for ≥ 4 months. A total of six patients were treated with bilateral medial rectus recession; only one patient remained orthotropic at postoperative 6 months, three patients were undercorrected, and two had a recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Esotropia persisted after refraining from smartphone use or wearing a Fresnel prism in acute acquired comitant esotropia patients who were smartphone overusers, and the surgical prognosis of these patients was relatively poor.
Key Words: Acute acquired comitant esotropia;Fresnel prism;Medial rectus recession;Smartphone;Surgical outcome

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