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Availability of Cycloplegic Refraction in Children and Adolescents
소아에서의 조절마비굴절검사의 유용성
JKOS 2020 Mar;61(3):274-80
Published online March 15, 2020;
Copyright © 2020 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.
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So Hee Kim, MD, Young Chun Lee, MD, PhD

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea
가톨릭대학교 의과대학 의정부성모병원 안과 및 시과학교실
Received August 30, 2018; Revised January 29, 2019; Accepted February 21, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: To compare non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractive errors and evaluate the utility of cycloplegia in Korean children and young adolescents.
Methods: An anterospective study including 406 outpatients was conducted from September 2015 to December 2017. Pre and post-cycloplegic refractive errors for both eyes were measured using Ocucyclo® and Mydrin P® with an auto-refractor. Patients were divided into different groups according to age: group 1 (< 4 years), group 2 (4-6 years), group 3 (6-8 years), group 4 (8-10 years) and group 5 (< 20 years).
Results: A total of 203 patients were studied. Standard deviation (sphere post-pre) was 1.26 ± 1.02 diopters significant in all age groups (p < 0.05). The mean difference decreased with increasing age (r = 0.207, p < 0.05), however, 9% of group with age greater than 10 years old still had manifest refraction-cycloplegic refraction (MR-CR) difference greater than 2 diopters. There were no significant cylindrical or axial component value difference before and after cycloplegia (p = 0.071). Significantly greater MR-CR differences were observed in hypermetropes ≥ 6 years old and myopes ≤8 years old (p < 0.05). The prevalence of pre-cycloplegic eyes with anisometria was 22.6% and 32.6%, a total of 7.39% regressed after cycloplegia (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: After CR hyperopic shift was observed in all age groups. In patients with age greater than 10 years old, although statistically not significant, anisometropia and pseudomyopia still existed. Thus cycloplegic refraction should be performed in young adolescent to precisely measure and correct refractive error and avoid overcorrection.
Keywords : Cycloplegic refraction, Refractive errors


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